Q & A About Erev Pesach on Shabbat
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This year we read the Torah portion of Vayikra on the Shabbat before Erev Pesach which coincides with next Shabbat. I have already covered the basic halachot relevant for that unique combination – here and here. This article will address several halachic issues that can come up when Erev Pesach coincides with Shabbat. It is based on Piskei Teshuvot, Siman 444.
When Should One Say the Yehi Ratzon?
Although we burn the chametz on Friday, we do not nullify the chametz until Shabbat morning as explained here. Nevertheless, one should recite the Yehi Ratzon prayer (asking that G-d banish evil from the world) when burning the chametz on Friday (Nitei Gavriel, Erev Pesach Shechal BeShabbat 9:5 citing the practice of the Lubavitcher Rebbe). Some say that the Yehi Ratzon should be recited on Shabbat morning when nullifying the chametz (see Erev Pesach Shechal BeShabbat 6:4).
May One Eat Chametz on Friday Afternoon?
Some say that, other than the challah eaten at the beginning of the first two Shabbat meals, one should not eat chametz after the burning of the chametz on Friday morning (Ta’amei HaMinhagim pg. 220b). Their reasoning is that this may lead to confusion in future (regular) years and one may forget and eat chametz after burning the chametz which would be forbidden.
In practice, the custom is to allow any consumption of chametz up until the last time to eat chametz as long as one is careful to dispose of the leftovers properly (see Aruch HaShulchan 444:4).
May One Cook Kosher LePesach foods in Chametz Keilim for the Shabbat Meals?
It is customary to cook food that is Kosher LePesach in Kosher-for-Pesach utensils for the meals of this Shabbat. It is best to do this even if one plans to serve the food on disposable plates etc. The reason for this is that the food cooked in chametz utensils is considered chametz. And if there is leftover food that one throws out with the disposable plates etc, it is possible that it will remain in his possession after the last time to own chametz (Piskei Teshuvot 444:10 based on various sources).
May One Cook Kitniyot (legumes) for these Shabbat Meals?
One may cook kitniyot (even Ashkenazim) and eat them at these Shabbat meals. The food should be prepared in chametz utensils which should be washed and put away before Shabbat. It can then be served on disposable plates etc. which are then thrown out. Since kitniyot are not actually chametz, there is no problem to have some of those leftovers in one’s garbage can after the last time to own chametz. This should only be done if there is an eiruv so one can throw out these plates in a public garbage bin.
May One Use Matzah as the Second Lechem Mishnah on Friday Night?
On Friday night (that coincides with Erev Pesach), one may use matzah as the second lechem mishnah (the second loaf for the hamotzie blessing). One should keep it wrapped in plastic (or the like) so that it does not touch the chametz. Although many have the custom not to eat matzah from Purim or from Rosh Chodesh Nissan, since it is not forbidden by the letter of the law, it is considered edible bread and may be used as the second lechem mishnah (that one is not eating). Matzot that were baked on Friday afternoon for use at the Seder (Matzot Mitzvah) are muktzah on this Shabbat and may not be moved (Pri Megadim – Eshel Avraham 444:1 as understood by the Piskei Teshuvot).
May One Use Matzah as the Second Lechem Mishnah on Shabbat Morning?
Some say that on Shabbat morning one may not use matzah for the second loaf of lechem mishnah since matzah is then actually forbidden to eat by the letter of the law. As such it is not considered edible “bread” and may not be used for lechem mishnah at all. Others disagree and permit its use for the second loaf of lechem mishnah. They point out that one may feed matzah to young children on this day and, as such, it is considered edible as far as lechem mishnah is concerned (Pri Megadim ibid).
May One Eat Egg Matzah on this Shabbat?
In the first article on this topic, I quoted Reb Moshe Feinstein who permits eating egg matzah for the lechem mishnah on this Shabbat as long as one eats it before the final time to eat chametz on Shabbat morning. Some disagree and say that one may not eat egg matzah on Shabbat morning as they consider it too similar to the matzah of the Seder which one may not eat on Erev Pesach (see sources quoted in Sha’ar HaTziyun 444:1). In addition, some say that, for this reason, one should not even eat egg matzah on the Friday night of Erev Pesach as they consider Friday night the same as Shabbat morning in this regard (based on the implication of Magen Avraham 471:6 regarding regular matzah). In practice, some recommend that only children or people who aren’t feeling well should eat egg matzah on the Shabbat of Erev Pesach (Shevet HaLevi 11:117).
What To Do If One Gets Up Late?
One who gets up late on this Shabbat and will not have time to daven the entire davening and eat chametz, should at least daven the following sections before making kiddush and eating challah (if there is time to do so). (See Responsa Kinyan Torah 3:105.)
- Birkot HaTorah (Blessings on the Torah)
- Baruch She’amar
- Blessings of the Shema and the Shema
- The Shacharit Amidah
One should make up the parts of davening that he skipped after the meal.
One who will not have time to even daven this amount may not eat the meal before davening because one cannot fulfill his obligation to eat the morning meal before davening. (See Piskei Teshuvot 289:10 regarding women who do not customarily daven Shacharit.) Rather one should daven and make kiddush without eating challah or any chametz afterwords. One should drink another revi’it (approximately 3 ozs. of wine) after kiddush in order to fulfill the concept of having a “meal” after Kiddush (see Shuchan Aruch HaRav 273:7) and then eat other Kosher LePesach foods.
Some say that in this case one may eat egg matzah although it is after the last time to eat chametz despite the fact that Ashekanzim usually refrain from doing so. This is because the law of eating a proper meal (lechem mishnah) on Shabbat overrides the stringency that Ashekazim have to not eat egg matzah on Pesach or Erev Pesach (Responsa Kinyan Torah ibid). One should make sure to eat this matzah before the last three hours of the day. Certainly one may not eat regular matzah in this case.
May One Brush One’s Teeth this Shabbat?
One may brush his teeth to clean them from chametz before the final time to eat chametz. It is best not to use toothpaste. One should use a dry, soft bristle toothbrush. One may moisten his mouth beforehand. When rinsing out the toothbrush, one should not shake out the excess water (see Piskei Teshuvot 327:3).
Is Chametz Muktzah on this Shabbat?
Whether or not chametz is muktzah (forbidden to move) on this Shabbat depends on the time of day.
When it is permissible to eat chametz, chametz is certainly not muktzah.
During the hour between the last time to eat chametz and the last time to own chametz, it is also not muktzah as one may feed it to one’s animals or give it to a gentile at that time.
After the final time to own chametz, all chametz becomes muktzah as it has no permissible use. As such, one should be very careful to get rid of one’s leftover chametz in a timely manner. If the last time of owning chametz has already passed and one has still not disposed of his chametz leftovers, one should ask a gentile to flush it down the toilet for them (Mishnah Berurah 444:21).
May I Put my Leftover Chametz in the “Sold” area?
If one sold his chametz through a rabbi who arranges that the sale is only effective on Shabbat, then one may place his leftover chametz in the sold area instead of disposing of it. One who sold his chametz through a rabbi who arranges for the sale to be effective before Shabbat begins, must dispose of any leftover chametz by breaking it up and flushing it down the toilet or by giving to a gentile before the last time for owning chametz.
Wishing you a Shabbat Shalom UMevorach!