Laws and Customs – Purim 5778
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Purim and Pesach Fund
You can fulfill the mitzvah of Matanot La’evyonim by contributing to the Purim and Pesach fund. All funds received are distributed to local (Miami) families as well as to several in Israel. You can give via paypal to firstname.lastname@example.org or by check or credit card to California Club Chabad (this method is tax deductable). Please send checks to 825 NE 205th Terrace, North Miami Beach, FL 33179. Please note that it is for the Purim and Pesach Fund. Your help will be greatly appreciated.
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Fast of Esther
Wed., 13 Adar, February 28
The 13th of Adar is the fast of Esther. This fast commemorates the fact that the Jewish people fasted on the day they battled their enemies in ancient Persia. It also recalls the three-day fast that Esther fasted before going in to see the king and plead for the Jewish people.
- The fast begins at dawn and ends when the stars come out.
- It is customary that pregnant women and nursing mothers do not have to fast on this day.
- Similarly, one who is sick need not fast. The same applies if one is suffering from a very bad headache.
- One who must take medication may swallow it (with a small amount of water if necessary). It is still considered that they are fasting.
- One may shower or bathe as usual on this day.
- This day is an opportune time for one’s prayers to be answered. One should first say Psalm 22 and then ask G-d to answer his prayers in the merit of Mordechai and Esther.
Fast Times from Chabad.org:
- If one wishes to wake up early and eat before the fast begins, one must stipulate this before going to sleep.
- If one normally wakes up and drinks during the night, he need not stipulate that he plans to do so on this night. If he does not normally do so and he wishes to drink in the early morning before the fast begins, it is best if he stipulates this before going to sleep.
- One should refrain from rinsing his mouth with water once the fast begins. If one is uncomfortable, one may brush one’s teeth (with toothpaste, if desired) and rinse one’s mouth with mouthwash afterwards.
The morning service includes Selichot (petitionary prayers added for fast days) and Avinu Malkeinu.
The order is: Tachnun, Selichot, Avinu Malkeinu, Va’anachnu lo Neida, and the Torah reading for a fast day.
Only one who is fasting should be called up for an aliyah.
One who is not fasting may be honored with Hagbah or Gelilah (lifting and wrapping the Torah).
Before Mincha it is customary to give 3 half-dollar coins (or half-shekel coins in Israel) to tzedaka for the poor. This is to recall the mitzvah of the half-shekel which the Jews used to give at this time of year for the communal sacrifices. The three coins recall the three times the Torah says the word Terumah (donation) in the section regarding the half-shekel coins. In addition, the three coins commemorate the three days that Esther and the Jews of Shushan fasted before Esther entered the king’s chamber.
- This mitzvah applies to men over the age of 20. Some say it is obligatory for men above the age of 13.
- It is customary for women to do this mitzvah as well. 
- A husband may do this on behalf of his wife.
- It is also customary for a father to give (3 coins) on behalf of his young children (including a child in utero).
- Once a father gives on his children’s behalf even once, he may not stop until the child grows up and is able to give on his own behalf.
- In 1992 the Lubavitcher Rebbe recommended that parents educate their children to give the Machatzit Hashekel from their own money. The parents should enable their children to give this in a way that they still have money for all of their needs.
- Sefardim have a custom to give the value of a half shekel (10 grams) of silver. In today’s market this is approximately $5.40.
- In some communities, it is customary for the gabbai to provide three silver half-dollars for the community’s use. Each person “buys” these coins for $1.50 and “gives” them to tzedakah. The preferred custom is to give three coins that are half of the local currency.
- Some say this money should be used specifically for the poor,especially poor Torah scholars in the land of Israel. Others say it may be used for any charitable cause.The Lubavitcher Rebbe mentioned on several occasions that there is an advantage to giving the Machatzit Hashekel to the Shul or Bais HaMidrash as these correspond to the destination of the original Machatzit Hashekel – the Bait HaMikdash. The Rebbe also recommended that the purpose for which the Machatzit HaShekel will be used should be written on the plate.
- Some have the custom that when giving the coins, they say “zecher lemachatzit hashekel (a memory for the half-shekel).” This is to ensure that one not mistakenly think that the coins have the holiness of the ancient half-shekels.
- Since the Machatzit HaShekel is not given on Purim (and is not necessarily distributed to the poor), one does not fulfill the mitzvah of Matanot La’evyonim (see below) by giving it. One should make sure to give to the poor separately so that they receive it on Purim.
- One should not use ma’aser funds for machatzit hashekel.
- There is both a Torah and Haftorah reading as part of the Mincha service.
- As mentioned, only one who is fasting should be called for an aliyah.
- During the silent Amidah, one who is fasting should add the Aneinu prayer to the Shema Koleinu blessing.
- If one forgot to say Aneinu in Shema Koleinu, one should say it before (or after) the final Yihiyu Leratzon at the end the Amidah.
- The Chazan should say the mini priestly blessing during the repetition of the Amidah as he does on every Mincha of a fast day. In Israel as well as in Sefardic communities in the diaspora, the Kohanim recite the priestly blessing during the repetition of the Amidah.
- There is no Tachnun or Avinu Malkeinu recited at Mincha as it is erev Purim.
- The main reward of a fast day is the Tzedaka that it is customary to give to the poor.Some have a custom to give the poor the amount of money they would have spent on eating that day (the approximate value of two meals).
- The Lubavitcher Rebbe renewed the ancient practice of speaking words that “awaken the heart and open the pathways to Teshivah” after Mincha on public fast days.
- One should pray Ma’ariv and hear the Megilah before breaking his fast.
- One who is sick or weak from the fast may drink and have snack food (but not grain food more than the size of an egg) after nightfall before hearing the Megillah.
Purim Night, Wednesday Night, February 28
The order of the evening service is as follows:
- Ma’ariv up to the Amidah and then Kadish Titkabel.
- On Motzei Shabbat, this Kadish is usually recited after Ve’atah Kadosh, but in this case, we say it earlier so that there not be a lengthy interruption between the Amidah and this Kadish.
- Megillah reading
- Ve’atah kadosh, Kadish shalem without Titkabel and Aleinu.
- Ve’atah Kadosh relates to the Megillah reading as it comes from Psalm 22, which, according to our tradition, was recited by Queen Esther as she approached King Achasverosh’s throne room.
- The Titkabel prayer in this Kadish is omitted since only one Kadish Titkabel is recited after each Amidah of the day.
During Purim, one should say Ve’al HaNissim in the Amidah and in the grace after meals. If one forgot to say it, one need not repeat the Amidah or the grace after mealssince Purim is a Rabbinically ordained holiday. However, one should make sure to recite it in the grace after meals as some say that Ve’al Hanissim is essential in that blessing.
- Men, women and children old enough to sit still (approximately 6 or 7 years old) are obligated to listen to the Megillah.
- The reader should spread out his Megillah for the reading so that it resembles a “letter”. The Chabad custom is to fold it twice so that it has three layers. In addition, according to Chabad custom, those who are listening to the reading with their own Megillah should also spread out it in this way. The Megillah should be placed on a table and should not be “hanging” in the air.
- The Chabad custom is to leave the Megillah spread out until after the blessing is said after the reading. In other communities the custom is to wrap it up before that blessing.
- The reader should only pause between each verse in order to breathe. In between each chapter, he should pause for a little bit longer.
- Care should be taken to hear every word. If one misses a word, one should catch up to the reader by reading to themselves from their (printed) Megillah.
- One must hear the entire Megillah in order. Therefore, one who came late and missed the beginning of the reading should listen to the entire reading later rather than hearing the end in the earlier reading and the beginning in a later reading.
- For this reason, one should not talk from the beginning of the Brachot until after the end of the bracha following the Megillah reading.
- If one has his own hand-written Megillah, he may read along with the reader, word for word. He should do so in an undertone so as not to disturb the other congregants who are listening to the Ba’al Koreh. One who is following in a printed Megillah should not read along.
- One who doesn’t understand Hebrew fulfills the mitzvah by simply listening to the reading.
- The Chazan should pause while the children shake their graggers etc. when Haman’s wicked name is mentioned.
- In Chabad synagogues, it is customary to shake the graggers only when Haman’s name is mentioned together with an adjective, e.g., “Haman Ha’Agagi” or “Haman ben Hamdata.”
- When hearing the brachot, it is proper for all the assembled to stand.
- During the reading, the reader should stand (if a minyan or more are present) while those listening may sit.
- It is better to hear the Megillah in Shul where there will be a large attendance rather than at home, even if there will be a minyan at home. If the noise in Shul makes it impossible to hear every word it is preferable to hear it in a private home, with a minyan.
- It is important to have at least ten people present for this reading. If this is not possible, one still fulfills the mitzvah.
- Some say that women count towards the number ten. Others disagree. Certainly children are not counted towards this minyan as their obligation is educational (chinuch).
- One should not bring very young children and babies to Shul as they may disturb the reading. In such a case, it is better to arrange for a private reading.
- If one is reading the Megillah with less than a minyan, one should not say the blessing after the reading. One may say the blessing with G-d’s name (Baruch Asher Kideshanu etc.)
- In addition to the four verses that are recited aloud by the congregation, the Chabad custom is that the congregation also recites the ten sons of Haman (in one breath) before the reader. The children should make noise after they are mentioned as well.
- The reader should raise his voice when saying the verse Balayla Hahu (beginning of chapter 6).
- One does not fulfill this mitzvah by hearing the Megillah being read over the phone, radio, Skype, or even a microphone.
- One who is in a place that does not have a kosher Megillah should read from a printed Megillah to remember the miracle but should not say a blessing on that reading.
- The Chabad custom is that the bracha after the Megillah is read before rolling up the Megillah. Others have the custom of rolling it up before the bracha.
Reading for Others
The Lubavitcher Rebbe encouraged people to seek out people who need to hear the Megillah and share this mitzvah with them.
If one is reading for others after having already fulfilled this mitzvah, it is preferable to have one of the listeners make the blessing if one of them is able to do so.
After the Megillah reading at night, one should have a small meal at home. The table should be set with a tablecloth and candles for this meal. This is in addition to the main Purim meal which must be eaten the next day and is the main, obligatory Purim meal.
Thursday, March 1 / 14 Adar
On Purim morning it is customary to go to Shul early.
- One should wear Shabbat clothes on Purim. These allude to the royal garments that both Mordechai and Esther donned in the Purim Story.
Late Zachor Reading
- One who did not hear the reading of Parshat Zachor should endeavor to go to Shul on Purim morning and hear the Torah reading since some say that one may fulfill the mitzvah of Zachor by listening to the Torah reading of Purim morning.
- Some have the custom of dressing up in costumes on this day. This commemorates the fact that Mordechai emerged wearing royal garments.
Work on Purim
- Although one is permitted to do work on Purim, it is customary to not actually “go to work” on this day. In addition, one who does go to work will not see a blessing from the money earned. If one did work, it is best to give the money he earned to tzedakah.
- It is best for women to not do household chores on Purim day.
Daytime Megillah Reading
- The daytime Megillah reading is considered even more important than the nighttime reading.
- The Megillah should be read after sunrise. If one cannot wait for sunrise, he may read or hear it after dawn.
- The reading may take place anytime during the day but should finish before sunset. If one didn’t read it before sunset but it is still before the emergence of three stars, one should do so without a beracha (blessing).
Megillah Reading Times:
Sunrise (best to start after this time)
Sunset (Finish before this time)
Dawn (If necessary, may start at this time)
Stars emerge (may read till this time w/o a blessing)
- One should not eat before hearing the Megillah. This applies to women as well. If one is very hungry, one may have a snack.
- In Shul, the Megillah is read after the Torah reading.
- It is customary to keep on one’s (Rashi) tefillin while hearing the Megillah.
- If there is a brit milah, it is customary to perform it before the Megillah reading. This is because the Megillah alludes to the brit milah with the word “sasson.” Some say the brit should be performed afterwards.
- One who did not do the Mitzvah of giving the Machatzit HaShekel (see above) on Wednesday, should do so before the daytime Megillah reading.
- Ashkenazim recite the bracha of Shehechiyanu during the daytime Megillah reading as well. When saying (or hearing) the bracha of She’hecheyanu at the daytime reading, one should have in mind that the bracha is also referring to the other mitzvot of the day (gifts to the poor, mishlo’ach manot and the Purim feast.)
- Sefardim do not recite She’hecheyanu at the daytime reading. They should have in mind the above-mentioned mitzvot at the nighttime reading.
- It is a mitzvah to give (at least) two ready-to-eat food items to (at least) one friend on this day.
- Men should give to men and women to women.
- A married woman should give separately from her husband.
- Children who have reached the age of education should be trained in this mitzvah. If one is in doubt whether or not a child is of age to be trained in this mitzvah, it is best to encourage them to do it.
- Some say that it is best to send these gifts through a messenger, as this mitzvah is called Mishlo’ach manot – sending gifts of food. This messenger may be a child, or even a non-Jew.
- The gifts should be respectable based on the recipients of the gifts.
- The two types of food may even be two different cuts of meat. Certainly they may be foods that the same beracha is recited on.
- In order to fulfill the mitzvah, these gifts should not be delivered to the recipients before Purim day.
- Even a poor person must fulfill this mitzvah.
- Some say that one does not fulfill this mitzvah by giving mishlo’ach manot together with a partner or a group. If one participated in a group mishlo’ach manot, it is best to also give to at least one friend individually.
- See below regarding giving (and receiving) mishloach manot to (and from) a mourner (avel).
- It is best to fulfill this mitzvah (as well as that of matanot la’evyonim) after the Megillah reading as the blessing of Shehechiyanu also refers to these mitzvot.
- It is an obligatory mitzvah for men, women, and children of the age of education, to give gifts to at least two poor people on this day.
- Rav Chaim Palagi explains that Haman tried to obliterate the Jewish people using the power of his evil eye. The best counter to the evil eye is giving Tzedakah. This is the reason the sages instituted this particular mitzvah.
- One should preferably give enough money or food to each poor person that enables him or her to purchase food for the Purim meal.
- The money that one gives to fulfill the basic obligation of matanot la’evyonim may not be taken from one’s ma’aser (tithe) money. But the money that one gives beyond their obligation may be taken from ma’aser.
- One may give cash or a check that can be cashed on that day.
- The money should reach the poor person on the day of Purim.
- The Rambam writes that it is better to spend more money on gifts of money to the poor than to increase in Mishlo’ach manot and one own party’s expenses. One’s greatest joy should be to gladden the hearts of widows, orphans and the poor. In doing so, one is similar to the Shechinah (Divine presence).
- On Purim, one should not be particular but should give to whoever asks.
- The poor people who receive the money need not spend it on Purim expenses but may use it however they see fit.
- It is a mitzvah to have a festive meal on Purim day.
- The rejoicing of Purim far surpasses even that of Yom Tov.
- One may have this meal in the morning, if one wishes.
- One who is having the meal later in the day should pray Mincha before the meal.
- It is best to start this meal with some Torah study. This is based on the verse “Layehudim haytah orah vesimcha – The Jews had light and joy.” Light is referring to Torah which should precede the joy of the feast of Purim.
- Some have the custom to learn some of the Pesach laws at this meal.
- Preferably, this meal should include bread and red meat or chicken.
- It is an Ashkenazi custom to eat kreplach (meat dumplings) at this meal. The fact that the meat in this dish is covered by the dough alludes to the fact that this Yom Tov is (somewhat) concealed.
- Some have a custom to light candles for this meal.
- This meal should preferably be scheduled in such a way that most of the meal is eaten during the day.
- At the very least, all the assembled should wash and eat bread before sunset.
- Despite the above halacha, many people do begin the meal towards the end of the day and extend it into the night. The Chabad custom is to continue the meal into the night. Indeed, the Chabad Rabbe’im’s Purim Farbrengens would take place mostly at night.
- Several reasons are offered for this custom.
- During the day people are busy with the other mitzvot of the day.
- Since this day celebrates the downfall of Haman, a non-Jew, and for non-Jews the night follows the day, we therefore extend the meal into the night.
- By extending the meal into the night we unite those that celebrate Purim and those (in walled cities) that celebrate Shushan Purim to celebrate simultaneously.
- The continuation of the meal at night indicates the joy of Purim is so great that it spills over into the time when there is no obligation per se to be joyous.
- If one recites the grace after meals after dark, they may say Ve’al HaNissim if they did not yet pray Ma’ariv.
- The Rama would go around in his community on the evening after Purim reminding them to pray Maariv.
- It is a mitzvah to drink (wine) to the point that one cannot discern between Baruch Mordechai (blessed be Mordechai) and Arur Haman (cursed be Haman) during the Purim meal to recall that much of the Purim miracle happened as a result of drinking wine.
- This represents reaching a level of simple faith that is beyond comprehension in fulfilling all the commandments of G-d, both positive (Baruch Mordechai) and negative (Arur Haman).
- One may fulfill this mitzvah by drinking to the point that one falls asleep and then (of course) cannot tell the difference between the two above-mentioned statements.
- Some say that one fulfills it by reaching a state of inebriation at which point one cannot calculate the gematriah (numerical value) of Baruch Mordechai and Arur Haman and realize that they are actually the same.
- If one wishes to fulfill this by actually drinking to the point of inebriation, one should only do so if it will not lead to inappropriate or immodest behavior and will not prevent him from saying any blessings or praying any of the daily prayers.
- Certainly, this mitzvah does not apply to women.
- In addition, the Lubavitcher Rebbe enacted a rule that his Chassidim should not drink more than four (1 oz) shots of alchohol if they are younger than the age of 40. This rule applies to Purim as well.
- One should not forget to pray Ma’ariv in the evening.
It is a widespread custom to eat Hamantashen, (triangular cookies with a sweet filling) on Purim. There are several reasons given for this custom.
- The three corners allude to the three patriarchs in whose merit G-d saved the Jewish people.
- The three corners allude to the Torah which was reaccepted by the Jewish people on Purim. (See Shabbat, 88a that the Torah has three aspects (TaNaCh), was given on the third month (Sivan) and on the third day of the days of separation (between spouses), by Moshe who was a third born, and to a people made up of three groups (Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim). In addition, the Torah is called the Torah of truth, and Jacob, the third patriarch, is considered to embody the trait of truthfulness.
- The word “tash” means “weak” in Hebrew. Thus, the word Hamantash can mean that Haman was weakened. So may all of our enemies be weakened!
- Mourners during shiva (may G-d have mercy) may go to Shul to hear the Megillah on Purim day. At night, they should stay home if they can organize a minyan for the Megillah reading. They may wear regular clothes and shoes and sit on regular chairs when in public.
- During Shloshim, a mourner should have his own Purim feast. During the first year of mourning after a parent, a mourner may attend the feast of a friend if there will not be music there.
- A mourner must give mishlo’ach manot, but not one that will bring excessive joy.
- It is customary not to give mishlo’ach manot to a mourner. One may, however, give to members of the family that are not in mourning.
- Despite this, if one does give a mourner mishlo’ach manot, he may accept it and the giver has fulfilled the mitzvah.
Thursday night, March 1 and Friday, March 2
On Shushan Purim one should have a small feast. No tachnun is recited, but Ve’al haNissim is also not recited.
In Jerusalem, Purim is celebrated on this day. There are several cities in Israel where there is a doubt as to whether they were walled at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun. As such, Purim is celebrated on the 14th of Adar, but the Megillah is read on the 15th as well. Some of these cities are,Tiberius, Chevron, Tzefat, Akko, Gush Chalav, Yaffo, Lud, Ramla, Gaza, Jericho, Beit Sha’an and Chaifa.
Purim is the only holiday which we will celebrate significantly when Moshiach comes.Let us hope that we read the Megillah with Moshiach this year!
 Special thanks to Rabbi Levi Silman of South Africa for his help with this article
 O.C. 686, 2
 Sefer Hatoda’ah
 Rama, Ibid, 2
 See Mishnah Berurah, 470:2 and Sha’ar HaTziyun 5
 Halichot Shlomo, Purim, 6
 Kav HaYashar
 O.C. 564, 1
 Rama 567, 1
 See Piskei Teshuvot 567, 1
 Hayom Yom, 11 Adar 2
 O.C. 566, 6
 Mateh Efraim 602, 14
 Ramah 694, 1, see Mishna Berura there
 Hitva’aduyot, 5749 vol. 2 pg. 439
 See Bartenurah on Shekalim 1, 3
 Tosfot Yom Tov, ibid, 4
 Mishnah Berura 694, 5
 Hitva’aduyot ibid
 Mishna Shekalim 1, 3, see Rambam in his commentary on the Mishnah
 Sefer HaSichot, 5752, page 788
 Yalkut Yosef, Dinei Leil Purim, 5
 Piskei Teshuvot, 694, 4
 Rama, 694:1, Hitva’aduyot, ibid. See also Biur Halacha, ibid, D.H VeYesh
 See Sha’arei Teshuvah, 694, 2
 Kaf HaChaim, ibid, 22. Passing it on to the land of Israel is similar to the way the original Machatzit HaShekel was used – to pay for the sacrifices in the Bait HaMikdash which is in the Holy Land (Maharil).
 Minchat Elazar, quoted in Piskei Teshuvot, note 28
 Sicha of Parshat Shekalim 1964 and 1982
 See Piskei Teshuvot, ibid, note 27
 Ba’er Heitev, 694:2
 O.C. 565, 1
 Ibid, 2 and Sha’ar HaTziyun, 6
 See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 129:1 that since there is no possibility of the Kohanim being drunk on a fast day, they recite Birkat Kohanim at Minchah as well.
 Brachot 6a
 Mateh Efraim 602, 21
 Rambam, Hilchot Ta’aniyot, 1:2
 Likutei Sichot, 20:352
 See O.C. 235, 2
 Mishnah Berurah, 692, 14
 O.C,693, 1.
 O.C. 693, 2
 See Mishnah Berurah 682:3
 Mishna Berura 695, 15
 O.C. 689, 1
 Ibid, 690, 17
 Kaf HaChaim, 690, 103 and Mishnah Berurah 56
 See Sha’arei Halacha UMinhag, vol. 5, page 164
 Rama, 690, 17
 Mishna Berura, 690, 60
 OC 690:6
 See Mishnah Berurah, 22
 Mishna Berura ibid, 13
 O.C. ibid, 8
 Mishna Berurah ibid, 60
 Sefer haminhagim Chabad
 Mishnah Berurah, 690:1 MB. It is proper for the community to stand for the brachah following the Megillah as well (Rav Elyashiv, quoted in the Mishnah Berurah Dirshu Edition).
 See O.C. ibid, 1
 See Mishna Berurah ibid, 62
 Yalkut Yosef, Dinei Mikrah Megillah, 5
 O.C. 690:18
 See 690, 18
 Mishnah Berurah 63 in the name of the Pri Megadim
 Ibid, 689, 18
 O.C. 692, 1 But see that Sefer HaMinhagim Chabad. See Sha’arei Halacha UMinhag, vol. 2, page 294 that the Previous Lubavitcher Rebbe said this bracha in private as well.
 See Mishnah Berurah 52 in the name of the Chayei Adam who recommends against following this custom, but see Aruch HaShulchan (23) and Tzofnat Panei’ach (Hashmatot to Hilchot Geirushin, col. 3 pg. 113) who explain it.
 Custom of the Maharil, see Mishnah Berurah 52
 Teshuvot UBiurim, pg. 242, Igrot Kodesh, 23:304. The reasons given there for a telephone applies to a microphone as well. See also Likutie Sichos 21:496-7 regarding the reading of the Megillah
 O.C. 691:10
 See Shveach HaMo’adim, pg. 127 and 128
 Mishnah Berurah, 190:57
 Regarding the blessing in a case when reading for women only, some say the blessing should be “lishmo’ah Megillah – to hear the Megillah” (Magen Avraham, 692, 5) while others say it is the regular blessing of “al mikrah Megillah – on reading the Megillah” (Pri Chadash, 689).
 Mishna Berurah 695, 3
 O.C. 695:1
 Ibid, 693, 6 “Purim is one of the five days on which it is customary to rise early. These are alluded to in the word ‘Avraham.'” (Moed Lehol Chai, 31, 60)
 Rama, 695:2 in the name of the Maharil
 Minhag Yisrael Torah, Kaf HaChaim (695), in the name of Rav Chaim Vital
 See Mishnah Berurah, 685:16 in the name of the Magen Avraham. The Mishnah Berurah questions his ruling
 Rama, 696, 8 and Yalkut Yosef, Hilchot HaSeudah VeSimchat Purim, 10
 Rama, ibid, 1
 Mo’ed Lechol Chai, 31, 30
 O.C. 687, 1, Mishnah Berurah, 6
 Ibid, 5
 O.C. 692, 4
 Mishna Berura ibid, 15. Before Shacharit, one must also bear in mind the laws concerning eating before praying.
 Sefer HaMinhagim, Chabad
 693, 4
 Mishnah Berurah 12
 Lu’ach Collel Chabad
 Rama, 692:1, HaYom Yom, 14 Adar II
 Mishna Berura, 692, 1
 O.C. ibid, 1
 O.C. 695, 4 and Piskei Teshuvot
 Likutei Sichot, 11:322
 See Mishah Berurah, 695, 18
 Piskei Teshuvot, ibid, 16
 O.C. 695, 4. Some say that even two portions of the same type of meat may be given (Tzitz Eliezer 14, 5) while others say that the two portions must be prepared differently (Aruch HaShulchan O.C. 695, 14).
 See Nitay Gavriel, Purim, Teshuvah 22 (printed at the end of the Sefer).
 O.C. 694
 Moed :Lechol Chai, 95
 Laws of Megillah, 2, 15 and 17
 O.C. 694, 3 based on Bava Metziah, 78
 Ibid, 695
 Sefer HaMinhagim Chabad
 Mo’ed Lechol Chai, 31, 93
 See Igrot Kodesh 5:256 where the Lubavitcher Rebbe brings various opinions as to whether or not it is necessary to eat bread at this meal.
 Minhag Yisrael Torah in the name of Ge’ulat Yisrael
 Sha’arei Teshuvah
 See Minhag Yisrael Torah who explains the reason for the widespread custom to start the meal late in the day and continue it into the night. But see Ba’er Heitev, 695:3 who recommends in the name of the Shela that the meal be eaten (and completed) before Mincha.
 Torat Menachem 5719, vol. 2 pg. 138
 Terumat HaDeshen
 Chatam Sofer
 Chemdat Aryeh cited in Minhag Yisrael Torah
 Torat Menachem, ibid
 O.C. 695 with Mishna Berurah
 Likutei Sichot, 3:916
 Magen Avraham, 3
 Hitva’aduyot, 5750, vol. 2, page 372
 Minhag Yisrael Torah
 O.C. 696
 Ibid, 697
 Ibid, 688
 Piskei Teshuvot, 688:7
 Likutei Sichot, 29:423 in a foortnote
 See Yalkut Shimoni Mishlei 944, Benei Yissachar, Ma’amarei Chodesh Adar 4, 8
Wishing you a Happy Purim and Shushan Purim!